f



Generics in Java 1.5 ( or is it java 5.0 ?... I always have confusion)

Hi,
      Looking at the signature of the following method in
java.util.List

public interface List<E> extends Collection<E> {
.........
........
......

<T> T[] toArray(T[] a);
}

I wrote a small program as below:

	ArrayList<String> c = new ArrayList<String>();
	c.add("Vikram");
	c.add("Pyati");
	Integer[] i = new Integer[20];
	c.toArray(i);

This did not give me a compilation error, though it fails at runtime
giving java.lang.ArrayStoreException, which is perfect.

My question is , why did the above mentioned method be declared as
<E> E[] toArray(E[] a);
which will force the method to take only the array of formal type ( in
this case a String[] ) at the compile time
0
6/12/2008 8:37:08 AM
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Vikram wrote:
> Java 1.5 ( or is it java 5.0 ?... I always have  confusion)

It's a durable floor wax *and* a delicious dessert topping!
<http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/relnotes/version-5.0.html>

There's no reason to be confused with the ready availability of explanations.

Vikram wrote:
>       Looking at the signature of the following method in
> java.util.List
> 
> public interface List<E> extends Collection<E> {
> ........
> .......
> .....
> 
> <T> T[] toArray(T[] a);
> }
> 
> I wrote a small program as below:
> 
> 	ArrayList<String> c = new ArrayList<String>();
> 	c.add("Vikram");
> 	c.add("Pyati");
> 	Integer[] i = new Integer[20];
> 	c.toArray(i);
> 
> This did not give me a compilation error, though it fails at runtime
> giving java.lang.ArrayStoreException, which is perfect.

So far everything is in accord with its Javadocs.

> My question is , why did the above mentioned method be declared as
> <E> E[] toArray(E[] a);

That wouldn't change the definition.  The first <E> makes E a new formal type 
parameter.  It wouldn't mean what you seem to think it means.

> which will force the method to take only the array of formal type ( in
> this case a String[] ) at the compile time

Good question.  If one of the Collections class authors frequents this group 
you might get an answer.  If I had to guess, though, I'd say it was to 
preserve compatibility with the earlier, pre-generics version of the method.

-- 
Lew
0
conrad1 (278)
6/12/2008 11:19:36 AM
On 12-6-2008 10:37, Vikram wrote:
> Hi,
>       Looking at the signature of the following method in
> java.util.List
> 
> public interface List<E> extends Collection<E> {
> ........
> .......
> .....
> 
> <T> T[] toArray(T[] a);
> }
> 
> I wrote a small program as below:
> 
> 	ArrayList<String> c = new ArrayList<String>();
> 	c.add("Vikram");
> 	c.add("Pyati");
> 	Integer[] i = new Integer[20];
> 	c.toArray(i);
> 
> This did not give me a compilation error, though it fails at runtime
> giving java.lang.ArrayStoreException, which is perfect.
> 
> My question is , why did the above mentioned method be declared as
> <E> E[] toArray(E[] a);

You probably mean
	E[] toArray(E[] a);
without the formal type parameter. Now E refers to the type parameter E 
of class List.

> which will force the method to take only the array of formal type ( in
> this case a String[] ) at the compile time

In that case you could only convert the list to an array of E, and not 
to an array of a superclass / interface of E.

There may be cases where it's useful to convert a list to an array of 
Objects. With your proposal that's not possible (it would generating a 
compile time error).

Modified example:

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;


public class ToArray {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       List<String> list = new ArrayList<String>();
       list.add("Vikram");
       list.add("Pyati");

       // The following is OK
       Object[] arrO = new Object[list.size()];
       Object[] resArrO = list.toArray(arrO);
       System.out.println(Arrays.deepToString(resArrO));

       // The following is OK; String implements Serializable
       Serializable[] arrS = new Serializable[list.size()];
       Serializable[] resArrS = list.toArray(arrS);
       System.out.println(Arrays.deepToString(resArrS));

       // The following is OK at compile time, but toArray causes an
       // ArrayStoreException at runtime
       Integer[] arrI = new Integer[list.size()];
       Integer[] resArrI = list.toArray(arrI);
       System.out.println(Arrays.deepToString(resArrI));
    }
}





-- 
Regards,

Roland
0
6/12/2008 12:23:12 PM
Roland de Ruiter wrote:
> You probably mean
>     E[] toArray(E[] a);
> without the formal type parameter. Now E refers to the type parameter E 
> of class List.
....
>       // The following is OK
>       Object[] arrO = new Object[list.size()];
>       Object[] resArrO = list.toArray(arrO);

Alternative idiom, purely a matter of style as the net result is the same:

  Object[] resArrO = list.toArray( new Object[0] );

I point this out not to recommend it, although personally I like it, but to 
alert those who may run across it from time to time.

Roland's explanation makes perfect sense, so I no longer feel the need to 
contact Java authors on the matter.

-- 
Lew
0
conrad1 (278)
6/12/2008 1:03:09 PM
Vikram wrote:
> Hi,
>       Looking at the signature of the following method in
> java.util.List
> 
> public interface List<E> extends Collection<E> {
> .........
> ........
> ......
> 
> <T> T[] toArray(T[] a);
> }
> 
> I wrote a small program as below:
> 
> 	ArrayList<String> c = new ArrayList<String>();
> 	c.add("Vikram");
> 	c.add("Pyati");
> 	Integer[] i = new Integer[20];
> 	c.toArray(i);
> 
> This did not give me a compilation error, though it fails at runtime
> giving java.lang.ArrayStoreException, which is perfect.
> 
> My question is , why did the above mentioned method be declared as
> <E> E[] toArray(E[] a);
> which will force the method to take only the array of formal type ( in
> this case a String[] ) at the compile time
So, first off, Generics and Arrays don't always mix well.

Second, I think you're attempting to express this:
<T super E> toArray(T[] a);

Although, that breaks this:
List<Number> c = new ArrayList<Number>();
c.add(new Integer(3));
c.add(new Integer(15));

Integer[] i = c.toArray(new Integer[0]);

the toArray(Object[]) method is inherently a run-time only method, 
because it can be used to create any type of array.

-- 
Daniel Pitts' Tech Blog: <http://virtualinfinity.net/wordpress/>
0
6/12/2008 7:44:24 PM
> > =A0 =A0 =A0 Object[] arrO =3D new Object[list.size()];
> > =A0 =A0 =A0 Object[] resArrO =3D list.toArray(arrO);
>
> Alternative idiom, purely a matter of style as the net result is the same:=

>
> =A0 Object[] resArrO =3D list.toArray( new Object[0] );
>
> I point this out not to recommend it, although personally I like it, but t=
o
> alert those who may run across it from time to time.

I much prefer the 2nd example simply because you do not need the arr0
reference (which to me is syntactic clutter).
0
dhamann (3)
6/12/2008 8:32:15 PM
d wrote:
>>>       Object[] arrO = new Object[list.size()];
>>>       Object[] resArrO = list.toArray(arrO);
>> Alternative idiom, purely a matter of style as the net result is the same:
>>
>>   Object[] resArrO = list.toArray( new Object[0] );
>>
>> I point this out not to recommend it, although personally I like it, but to
>> alert those who may run across it from time to time.
> 
> I much prefer the 2nd example simply because you do not need the arr0
> reference (which to me is syntactic clutter).

You don't need it in the first idiom, really:

   Object[] resArrO = list.toArray( new Object[list.size()] );

Difference eliminated.

-- 
Lew
0
conrad1 (278)
6/13/2008 3:42:43 AM
On Jun 12, 8:42=A0pm, Lew <con...@lewscanon.com.invalid> wrote:
> d wrote:
> >>> =A0 =A0 =A0 Object[] arrO =3D new Object[list.size()];
> >>> =A0 =A0 =A0 Object[] resArrO =3D list.toArray(arrO);
> >> Alternative idiom, purely a matter of style as the net result is the sa=
me:
>
> >> =A0 Object[] resArrO =3D list.toArray( new Object[0] );
>
> >> I point this out not to recommend it, although personally I like it, bu=
t to
> >> alert those who may run across it from time to time.
>
> > I much prefer the 2nd example simply because you do not need the arr0
> > reference (which to me is syntactic clutter).
>
> You don't need it in the first idiom, really:
>
> =A0 =A0Object[] resArrO =3D list.toArray( new Object[list.size()] );
>
> Difference eliminated.
>
> --
> Lew

Thanks very much to everyone... Now I am clear
0
6/13/2008 11:40:54 AM
Reply:

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