f



& versus &&

When I use &, I get the following message: 

"Use && instead of & as the AND operator in (scalar) conditional statements."

I wanted to compare two vectors element by element, as well write a conditional statement for just one of the elements of one of the vectors (i.e., solution1(13)>=0 & solution1~=solution2). If I use &&, I can't compare the two vectors as a whole, i.e., element by element. On a simple test I performed, it seemed that & worked fined for writing a conditional statement for just one of the elements. 

I hope I'm making sense. My question is, what's wrong with only using &, and never using &&?
0
johnps (81)
8/11/2011 12:16:10 PM
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"John  Smith" <johnps@gmail.com> wrote in message <j20h6a$dgg$1@newscl01ah.mathworks.com>...
> When I use &, I get the following message: 
> 
> "Use && instead of & as the AND operator in (scalar) conditional statements."
> 
> I wanted to compare two vectors element by element, as well write a conditional statement for just one of the elements of one of the vectors (i.e., solution1(13)>=0 & solution1~=solution2). If I use &&, I can't compare the two vectors as a whole, i.e., element by element. On a simple test I performed, it seemed that & worked fined for writing a conditional statement for just one of the elements. 
> 
> I hope I'm making sense. My question is, what's wrong with only using &, and never using &&?

&& is use with boolean scalar expression all skip an evaluation together when it's not needed.

Example, the statement:

b = ~isempty(a) && a(1) > 2;

works  for a = [] and as well a = [1 2];

If && is replaced by &, Matlab throws error if a = [];

Bruno
0
b.luong5955 (6401)
8/11/2011 12:30:32 PM

"John  Smith" <johnps@gmail.com> wrote in message 
news:j20h6a$dgg$1@newscl01ah.mathworks.com...
> When I use &, I get the following message:
> "Use && instead of & as the AND operator in (scalar) conditional 
> statements."
>
> I wanted to compare two vectors element by element, as well write a 
> conditional statement for just one of the elements of one of the vectors 
> (i.e., solution1(13)>=0 & solution1~=solution2). If I use &&, I can't 
> compare the two vectors as a whole, i.e., element by element. On a simple 
> test I performed, it seemed that & worked fined for writing a conditional 
> statement for just one of the elements.
> I hope I'm making sense. My question is, what's wrong with only using &, 
> and never using &&?

&& short-circuits (doesn't evaluate the second input) if the first input is 
false; this can lead to better performance, like:

    y = ~isempty(a) && veryLongComputationInvolvingA(a);

If a is empty, the first input [~isempty(a)] is false. False AND anything is 
going to be false regardless of the second input's truth value (or even if 
it has a truth value; false && NaN will not error like false & NaN does) so 
in this case MATLAB won't need to execute the function 
veryLongComputationInvolvingA (which may work if its input is nonempty) and 
will simply say y = false.

& does NOT short-circuit except in the context of an IF or WHILE statement 
(for backwards compatibility reasons, I believe.) So the following WOULD 
execute veryLongComputationInvolvingA even if a is empty.

    y = ~isempty(a) & veryLongComputationInvolvingA(a);

This behavior is documented on the reference page for the logical operators.

http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/ref/logicaloperatorselementwise.html

-- 
Steve Lord
slord@mathworks.com
To contact Technical Support use the Contact Us link on 
http://www.mathworks.com 

0
slord (13686)
8/11/2011 2:38:16 PM
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Shelly; Let's create a StateNames dataset. %let libNs = work ; Data &libNs..StateNames ; Length FIP 8 state $2 ; Do FIP=1 to 56 ; state = fipState(FIP) ; If ( ( state ne "--" ) & ( ranUni(2) lt 0.4 ) ) then output ; End ; Run ; Now, we have 12 state abbreviations. Let's create the macro variables. I moified your code a little - especially with the substitution of the SYMPUTX() call routine. I also added NOTSORTED to the BY statement so that I wouldn't have to sort the data. Data _null_ ; Set &libNs..StateNames end=eof ; By state notSorted ; If first.state then do ; flag + 1 ; Call symPutX( catS( 'var', flag ) , state ) ; End ; If eof then call symPutX( 'TotalStates' , flag ) ; Run ; Let's see what we have for macro variables. %put _user_ ; GLOBAL TOTALSTATES 12 GLOBAL LIBNS work GLOBAL VAR12 UT GLOBAL VAR1 CO GLOBAL VAR2 CT GLOBAL VAR10 SD GLOBAL VAR3 DE GLOBAL VAR11 TN GLOBAL VAR4 FL GLOBAL VAR5 ME GLOBAL VAR6 MS GLOBAL VAR7 MO GLOBAL VAR8 NV GLOBAL VAR9 NM Here's the DATA step created by your macro. Data State_CO State_CT State_DE State_FL State_ME State_MS State_MO State_NV State_NM State_SD State_TN State_UT ; Set work.AllStates ; if state="CO" then output State_CO ; else if st...

The .NET assembly expected to be at &quot;&quot; was loaded from &quot;NULL&quot;
Hello, &nbsp; I use NET Components in a LabVIEW 8.2.1. VI and all work very fine. Now I convert it to LabVIEW 8.5 and I always get a warning, when open it. The Warning is : &nbsp;The .NET assembly expected to be at "" was loaded from "NULL". As example I add my CallbackVI in the Attachment. If somebody has an idea to remove this warning I would be thankful. &nbsp; Thanks in advance TE_NET_ToolStrip.ClickCallback.vi: http://forums.ni.com/attachments/ni/170/304243/1/TE_NET_ToolStrip.ClickCallback.vi Oh I was glad to early. The problem was only solved one time. When I changed something and saved again, I had again the troubles. &nbsp; I will recreate the VIs now. I already done, but it didn't helped. Now I read, that old one should be closed. ...

Trouble using Real Time &quot;Wait&quot; and &quot;Wait until&quot;
Hi,My problem is:When I use Labview Realtime with a while loop in CompactRIO, if I use a "Wait" or "Wait Until" function with unit "us" ot "ns" the loop will stop there forever. However, if I set the unit to ms, the loop can normally run.Besides, if I run the same vi under the host computer (not under CompactRIO), the loop can run correctly with whatever units "ms", "us", or "ns".Can anyone help me to solve this problem or tell me why?Thanks! ...

Unconfigured, Bad Status &quot;A&quot;, Bad Status &quot;B&quot;
Greeting All. I recently upgraded to LabVIEW 8.5.1, including LabVIEW-RT.My application acquires data from an AI-110 -- Compact FP module.Anyhow, to make a long story short, my program started to malfunction.[After lots of pain and suffering,] I learned that the call fo FP Read produces the error:Unconfigured, Bad Status "A", Bad Status "B"The error is frequent, and I cannot help to think that it is considerably diminishing the performance of all other tasks.Any Ideas? Can you post your code?&nbsp; RayR&nbsp; Certainly. Attached, you'll find a VI that resembles my worker-VI - which I use in my project.I run this VI inside of a state machine.&nbsp; It is initialized at the onset of execution.Thereafter, it is called upon [to read data] at 2Hz.The session is closed at the end.Thanks. ai110.vi: http://forums.ni.com/attachments/ni/170/328071/1/ai110.vi ...

MAX &gt;&gt; Tools &gt;&gt; RT Disk Utilities is disabled
Hi, &nbsp; I've got a problem creating a boot disk for my desktop pc. The whole MAX menu "Tools" &gt;&gt; "RT Disk Utilities" is disabled and I can't create my boot disk. Can u help me? &nbsp; Thanks, &nbsp; Jannes ...

Two ISPs & Route-map & NAT POOL & access-list & not working -HELP!
Hey Guys, I have been trying to configure this router for 4 weeks. So far, I have succeeded in getting the router to the following: I can ping both ISP's default router from computers within the network. It appears that computers from within the network can route out: Total active translations: 19 (0 static, 19 dynamic; 19 extended) Outside interfaces: Ethernet0/0, Serial0/0 Inside interfaces: Ethernet0/1 Hits: 4416 Misses: 1152 Expired translations: 1031 Dynamic mappings: -- Inside Source route-map T1 pool outt1 refcount 18 pool outt1: netmask 255.255.255.252 start 155.55.44.213 end 155.55.44.214 type generic, total addresses 2, allocated 1 (50%), misses 0 route-map outtoDSL pool outDSL refcount 1 pool outDSL: netmask 255.255.255.128 start 100.10.88.1 end 100.10.88.127 type generic, total addresses 127, allocated 1 (0%), misses 0 -- Outside Source route-map incDSL pool come-dsl refcount 0 pool come-dsl: netmask 255.255.255.0 start 192.168.50.1 end 192.168.50.254 type generic, total addresses 254, allocated 0 (0%), misses 0 route-map incT1 pool come-t1 refcount 0 pool come-t1: netmask 255.255.255.0 start 192.168.50.1 end 192.168.50.254 type generic, total addresses 254, allocated 0 (0%), misses 0 Entry1#sh ip nat trans Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global udp 155.55.44.213:29044 192.168.50.2:29044 166.2.2.4:53 166.2.2.4:53 tcp 155.55.44.213:48963 192...

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