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Re: Changes and frequency of changes

On Sat, 28 Apr 2007 15:08:15 -0400, mcolowasth@YAHOO.CO.UK wrote:

>Hi,
>
>I observe variable x over time (from 1999-2005) for a large number of
>firms, w. I have computed the change in variable x from one year to the
>next.
>
>Now, I would like to identify whether variable x has changed from one year
>to the next for each firm as well as how often it changed for each firm(in
>some cases I expect no change in this variable i.e. 0).
>
>Any suggestions on how to do this in sas?
>
>Thanks

Generate test data, since original poster did not provide it:

   data observed;
   do firm = 'a', 'b';
      do year = 1999 to 2005;
         x = 2 + round(ranuni(135),0.3);
         output;
         end;
      end;
   run;

Result:

   Obs    firm    year     x

     1     a      1999    2.9
     2     a      2000    2.9
     3     a      2001    2.9
     4     a      2002    2.0
     5     a      2003    2.3
     6     a      2004    2.9
     7     a      2005    2.3
     8     b      1999    2.9
     9     b      2000    2.6
    10     b      2001    2.9
    11     b      2002    2.6
    12     b      2003    2.6
    13     b      2004    2.3
    14     b      2005    2.0

Here is a solution with a couple of dorfmanic touches:

   data whether  (keep = firm year x whether)
        howoften (keep = firm howoften)
        ;
   set observed;
   by firm;
   changed = not not dif(fuzz(x) );
   if first.firm then howoften = 0;
   else do;
      whether   = changed;
      howoften ++ changed;
      end;
   output whether;
   if last.firm then output howoften;
   run;

The formula for CHANGED first quantifies any difference, then the double
boolean negation maps zero to zero and anything else to one.

WHETHER:

   Obs    firm    year     x     whether

     1     a      1999    2.9       .
     2     a      2000    2.9       0
     3     a      2001    2.9       0
     4     a      2002    2.0       1
     5     a      2003    2.3       1
     6     a      2004    2.9       1
     7     a      2005    2.3       1
     8     b      1999    2.9       .
     9     b      2000    2.6       1
    10     b      2001    2.9       1
    11     b      2002    2.6       1
    12     b      2003    2.6       0
    13     b      2004    2.3       1
    14     b      2005    2.0       1

HOWOFTEN:

   Obs    firm    howoften

    1      a          4
    2      b          5
0
nospam1405 (4666)
4/29/2007 3:22:28 AM
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