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Naming colours in the default RISC OS palette

Hi

I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in the de=
fault 256 colour palette. (It's a program to output Wavefront .obj files, i=
n which colours are associated with named materials defined in a .mtl file.=
) Consequently I recently spent far too long creating a list of colour name=
s. I thought it might interest others.

 The colour names were taken from a variety of online sources including
Wikipedia articles, W3C standards, the X Window System, and the results of
the web comic XKCD's colour naming survey.

 On RISC OS, the default 256 colour palette is generated by using two bits
of the colour index to encode each component (red, green or blue), with two
additional 'tint' bits shared between all components (2+2+2+2=3D8 bits per
pixel). Mixing white into a colour by setting tint bits increases its value
(aka brightness) but reduces its saturation. Consequently the palette has a
characteristic lack of saturated colours.

 Initially, I tried to find the named colour closest to each palette entry
but I soon found that tints of the same primary colour had unrelated names.
In rare cases where tints had related names, the gradation from dark to
bright was unclear. I therefore abandoned my original list of 256 colour
names and used the same algorithm to find the nearest name for each of the
64 fully-saturated colours with tint 0.

 I found that a weighted least-squares algorithm such as that used by
the ColourTrans module produces misleading results when used for colour
naming because we use the word 'purple' to describe many colours of the sam=
e
hue and saturation (e.g. 'magenta', 'darkmagenta' and 'purple' in X11) but
very different brightnesses. I therefore normalized the {red, green, blue}
vector for each palette entry and named colour before comparing them. To
ensure that a name closer in brightness would still be chosen in preference
to one further away, I treated the the total difference as a weighted sum
of the unit vector difference (70%) and the vector length difference (30%).

 I made some tweaks to eliminate corporate and university colours. I also
chose to name colours 16, 128 and 144 using the short X11 names 'maroon',
'navy' and 'purple' instead of the slightly better-matching X11 names
'darkred', 'darkblue' and 'darkmagenta'. My intention was to avoid potentia=
l
confusion between those colours and 4, 8 and 12, which are darker still.
Colours 20 and 96 are not actual X11 colour names but were named in the
same style as 'mediumblue' because I wanted similar names for all three
primaries at the same brightness.

 The final colours are listed below:
/-------|---------|----------------------|-------------------------------\
| Index | Web RGB | Name                 | Notes                         |
|-------|---------|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|     0 | #000000 | black              * | Identical to HTML 'black'     |
|     4 | #440000 | darkmaroon           | By analogy with 'darkred'     |
|     8 | #000044 | darknavy             | By analogy with 'darkblue'    |
|    12 | #440044 | darkpurple           | By analogy with 'darkmagenta' |
|    16 | #880000 | maroon             * | Like HTML colour #800000      |
|    20 | #cc0000 | mediumred            | By analogy with 'mediumblue'  |
|    24 | #880044 | tyrianpurple         | Like Wikipedia colour #66023c |
|    28 | #cc0044 | crimson            * | Like X11 colour #dc143c       |
|    32 | #004400 | darkgreen          + | Like X11 colour #006400       |
|    36 | #444400 | darkolive            | Like XKCD colour #373e02      |
|    40 | #004444 | darkteal             | Like XKCD colour #014d4e      |
|    44 | #444444 | darkgrey           + | Darker than X11 'dimgray'     |
|    48 | #884400 | brown              * | Like Wikipedia colour #964b00 |
|    52 | #cc4400 | mahogany             | Like Wikipedia colour #c04000 |
|    56 | #884444 | cordovan             | Like Wikipedia colour #893f45 |
|    60 | #cc4444 | brickred             | Like Wikipedia colour #cb4154 |
|    64 | #008800 | green              * | Like HTML colour #008000      |
|    68 | #448800 | avocado              | Like Wikipedia colour #568203 |
|    72 | #008844 | pigmentgreen         | Like Wikipedia colour #00a550 |
|    76 | #448844 | ferngreen            | Like Wikipedia colour #4f7942 |
|    80 | #888800 | olive              * | Like HTML colour #808000      |
|    84 | #cc8800 | harvestgold          | Like Wikipedia colour #da9100 |
|    88 | #888844 | darktan              | Like Wikipedia colour #918151 |
|    92 | #cc8844 | peru               * | Like X11 colour #cd853f       |
|    96 | #00cc00 | mediumgreen          | By analogy with 'mediumblue'  |
|   100 | #44cc00 | napiergreen          | Like Wikipedia colour #2a8000 |
|   104 | #00cc44 | darkpastelgreen      | Like Wikipedia colour #03c03c |
|   108 | #44cc44 | limegreen          * | Like X11 colour #32cd32       |
|   112 | #88cc00 | applegreen           | Like Wikipedia colour #8db600 |
|   116 | #cccc00 | peridot              | Like Wikipedia colour #e6e200 |
|   120 | #88cc44 | yellowgreen        * | Like X11 colour #9acd32       |
|   124 | #cccc44 | oldgold              | Like Wikipedia colour #cfb53b |
|   128 | #000088 | navy               * | Like HTML colour #000080      |
|   132 | #440088 | indigo             * | Like X11 colour #4b0082       |
|   136 | #0000cc | mediumblue         * | Like X11 colour #0000cd       |
|   140 | #4400cc | violetblue           | Like XKCD colour #510ac9      |
|   144 | #880088 | purple             * | Like HTML colour #800080      |
|   148 | #cc0088 | mediumvioletred    * | Like X11 colour #c71585       |
|   152 | #8800cc | darkviolet         * | Like X11 colour #9400d3       |
|   156 | #cc00cc | deepmagenta          | Like Wikipedia colour #cc00cc |
|   160 | #004488 | mediumelectricblue   | Like Wikipedia colour #035096 |
|   164 | #444488 | darkslateblue      * | Like X11 colour #483d8b       |
|   168 | #0044cc | royalazure           | Like Wikipedia colour #0038a8 |
|   172 | #4444cc | pigmentblue          | Like Wikipedia colour #333399 |
|   176 | #884488 | plum               + | Like Wikipedia colour #8e4585 |
|   180 | #cc4488 | mulberry             | Like Wikipedia colour #c54b8c |
|   184 | #8844cc | lavenderindigo       | Like Wikipedia colour #9457eb |
|   188 | #cc44cc | deepfuchsia          | Like Wikipedia colour #c154c1 |
|   192 | #008888 | teal               * | Like HTML colour #008080      |
|   196 | #448888 | dustyteal            | Like XKCD colour #4c9085      |
|   200 | #0088cc | honolulublue         | Like Wikipedia colour #007fbf |
|   204 | #4488cc | celestialblue        | Like Wikipedia colour #4997d0 |
|   208 | #888888 | grey               * | Like HTML colour #808080      |
|   212 | #cc8888 | oldrose              | Like Wikipedia colour #c08081 |
|   216 | #8888cc | ube                  | Like Wikipedia colour #8878c3 |
|   220 | #cc88cc | pastelviolet         | Like Wikipedia colour #cb99c9 |
|   224 | #00cc88 | caribbeangreen       | Like Wikipedia colour #00cc99 |
|   228 | #44cc88 | mint                 | Like Wikipedia colour #3eb479 |
|   232 | #00cccc | darkturquoise      * | Like X11 colour #00ced1       |
|   236 | #44cccc | mediumturquoise    * | Like X11 colour #48d1cc       |
|   240 | #88cc88 | darkseagreen       * | Like X11 colour #8fbc8f       |
|   244 | #cccc88 | lightbeige           | Like Ford colour #d2d08e      |
|   248 | #88cccc | pearlaqua            | Like Wikipedia colour #88d8c0 |
|   252 | #cccccc | lightgrey          * | Like X11 colour #d3d3d3       |
\-------|---------|----------------------|-------------------------------/
* means that a colour has the same name as one of the standard X11 colours
 and closely resembles it.
+ means that a colour has the same name as one of the standard X11 colours
 but is significantly darker.


Christopher Bazley
0
Christopher
10/27/2016 10:37:57 AM
comp.sys.acorn.programmer 2499 articles. 0 followers. Post Follow

11 Replies
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Red, another red, another kind of red, reddy-yellow, yellow, another
yellow, one more yellow, green, another green, more green, god there's
loads of greens here, are you kidding another green, sort-of blue, blue,
another blue, yet another blue, white, black.

Sorted.
0
jgh
10/27/2016 7:35:39 PM
On 27/10/2016 11:37, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in
> the default 256 colour palette.

I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.

---druck
0
druck
10/27/2016 7:50:13 PM
In article <nutlp4$rkm$1@dont-email.me>,
   druck <news@druck.org.uk> wrote:

> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
> black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.

Sexism?

-- 
John Williams, now back in the UK - no attachments to these addresses!
Non-RISC OS posters change user to johnrwilliams or put 'risc' in subject!
Who is John Williams? http://petit.four.free.fr/picindex/author/
0
John
10/27/2016 8:17:48 PM
In article <55d5c7466dUCEbin@tiscali.co.uk>,
   John Williams (News) <UCEbin@tiscali.co.uk> wrote:

> Sexism?

Or "locker room banter"?

Are you a candidate?

Perhaps a preferable choice to "Trfart"!

John

-- 
John Williams, now back in the UK - no attachments to these addresses!
Non-RISC OS posters change user to johnrwilliams or put 'risc' in subject!
Who is John Williams? http://petit.four.free.fr/picindex/author/
0
John
10/27/2016 8:21:18 PM
In article <nutlp4$rkm$1@dont-email.me>,
   druck <news@druck.org.uk> wrote:

> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
> black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.

Now that I really like 8)

-- 
Chris Johnson
0
News
10/27/2016 8:59:36 PM
John Williams (News) wrote:
> > I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
> > black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.
> 
> Sexism?

No, science: https://blog.xkcd.com/2010/05/03/color-survey-results

0
jgh
10/27/2016 11:04:07 PM
On Thursday, 27 October 2016 20:50:21 UTC+1, druck  wrote:
> On 27/10/2016 11:37, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> > I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in
> > the default 256 colour palette.
> 
> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
> black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.
> 
> ---druck

Thanks for your advice. I have revised my colour chart accordingly and reproduce the revised version below:

/-------|---------|----------------|----------------------------------\
| Index | Web RGB | Name           | Notes                            |
|-------|---------|----------------|----------------------------------|
|     0 | #000000 | black        * | Identical to HTML 'black'        |
|     4 | #440000 | womancolour1   | Can only be described by women   |
|     8 | #000044 | womancolour2   | Can only be described by women   |
|    12 | #440044 | womancolour3   | Can only be described by women   |
|    16 | #880000 | womancolour4   | Can only be described by women   |
|    20 | #cc0000 | red            | Darker than HTML 'red'           |
|    24 | #880044 | womancolour5   | Can only be described by women   |
|    28 | #cc0044 | womancolour6   | Can only be described by women   |
|    32 | #004400 | womancolour7   | Can only be described by women   |
|    36 | #444400 | womancolour8   | Can only be described by women   |
|    40 | #004444 | womancolour9   | Can only be described by women   |
|    44 | #444444 | grey1          | Darker than HTML 'gray'          |
|    48 | #884400 | womancolour10  | Can only be described by women   |
|    52 | #cc4400 | womancolour11  | Can only be described by women   |
|    56 | #884444 | womancolour12  | Can only be described by women   |
|    60 | #cc4444 | womancolour13  | Can only be described by women   |
|    64 | #008800 | womancolour14  | Can only be described by women   |
|    68 | #448800 | womancolour15  | Can only be described by women   |
|    72 | #008844 | womancolour16  | Can only be described by women   |
|    76 | #448844 | womancolour17  | Can only be described by women   |
|    80 | #888800 | womancolour18  | Can only be described by women   |
|    84 | #cc8800 | womancolour19  | Can only be described by women   |
|    88 | #888844 | womancolour20  | Can only be described by women   |
|    92 | #cc8844 | womancolour21  | Can only be described by women   |
|    96 | #00cc00 | green          | Between HTML 'green' & 'lime'    |
|   100 | #44cc00 | womancolour22  | Can only be described by women   |
|   104 | #00cc44 | womancolour23  | Can only be described by women   |
|   108 | #44cc44 | womancolour24  | Can only be described by women   |
|   112 | #88cc00 | womancolour25  | Can only be described by women   |
|   116 | #cccc00 | yellow         | Between HTML 'olive' & 'yellow'  |
|   120 | #88cc44 | womancolour26  | Can only be described by women   |
|   124 | #cccc44 | womancolour27  | Can only be described by women   |
|   128 | #000088 | womancolour28  | Can only be described by women   |
|   132 | #440088 | womancolour29  | Can only be described by women   |
|   136 | #0000cc | blue           | Between HTML 'navy' & 'blue'     |
|   140 | #4400cc | womancolour30  | Can only be described by women   |
|   144 | #880088 | womancolour31  | Can only be described by women   |
|   148 | #cc0088 | womancolour32  | Can only be described by women   |
|   152 | #8800cc | womancolour33  | Can only be described by women   |
|   156 | #cc00cc | magenta        | Between HTML 'fuchsia' & 'purple'|
|   160 | #004488 | womancolour34  | Can only be described by women   |
|   164 | #444488 | womancolour35  | Can only be described by women   |
|   168 | #0044cc | womancolour36  | Can only be described by women   |
|   172 | #4444cc | womancolour37  | Can only be described by women   |
|   176 | #884488 | womancolour38  | Can only be described by women   |
|   180 | #cc4488 | womancolour39  | Can only be described by women   |
|   184 | #8844cc | womancolour40  | Can only be described by women   |
|   188 | #cc44cc | womancolour41  | Can only be described by women   |
|   192 | #008888 | womancolour42  | Can only be described by women   |
|   196 | #448888 | womancolour43  | Can only be described by women   |
|   200 | #0088cc | womancolour44  | Can only be described by women   |
|   204 | #4488cc | womancolour45  | Can only be described by women   |
|   208 | #888888 | grey2          | Like HTML 'gray'                 |
|   212 | #cc8888 | womancolour46  | Can only be described by women   |
|   216 | #8888cc | womancolour47  | Can only be described by women   |
|   220 | #cc88cc | womancolour48  | Can only be described by women   |
|   224 | #00cc88 | womancolour49  | Can only be described by women   |
|   228 | #44cc88 | womancolour50  | Can only be described by women   |
|   232 | #00cccc | cyan           | Between HTML 'teal' & 'aqua'     |
|   236 | #44cccc | womancolour51  | Can only be described by women   |
|   240 | #88cc88 | womancolour52  | Can only be described by women   |
|   244 | #cccc88 | womancolour53  | Can only be described by women   |
|   248 | #88cccc | womancolour54  | Can only be described by women   |
|   252 | #cccccc | grey3          | Like HTML 'silver'               |
\-------|---------|----------------|----------------------------------/
0
Christopher
10/28/2016 2:33:54 PM
On 28/10/2016 15:33, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> On Thursday, 27 October 2016 20:50:21 UTC+1, druck  wrote:
>> On 27/10/2016 11:37, Christopher Bazley wrote:
>>> I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in
>>> the default 256 colour palette.
>>
>> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white,
>> black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.
>
> Thanks for your advice. I have revised my colour chart accordingly and reproduce the revised version below:
>
[Snip table]

Top job that man!

But what does Harriet have to say about it?

---druck

0
druck
10/28/2016 7:15:45 PM
On 28 Oct 2016 as I do recall,
          druck  wrote:

> On 28/10/2016 15:33, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> > On Thursday, 27 October 2016 20:50:21 UTC+1, druck  wrote:
> >> On 27/10/2016 11:37, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> >>> I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in
> >>> the default 256 colour palette.
> >>
> >> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours,

The *7* primary colours...?

> >> white, black and grey, anything else can only really described by
> >> women.
> >
> > Thanks for your advice. I have revised my colour chart accordingly and reproduce the revised version below:
> >
> [Snip table]
>
> Top job that man!
>
> But what does Harriet have to say about it?
>
I think he overrates my descriptive abilities!

-- 
Harriet Bazley                     ==  Loyaulte me lie ==

Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent.
0
Harriet
11/11/2016 1:14:01 AM
In message <nutlp4$rkm$1@dont-email.me>
 on 27 Oct 2016 druck  wrote:

> On 27/10/2016 11:37, Christopher Bazley wrote:
> > I'm working on a new project for which I want to name the colours in
> > the default 256 colour palette.
> 
> I find there is only the need to name the 7 primary colours, white, 
> black and grey, anything else can only really described by women.

A study of 98 different languages in 1969 concluded that there are at most 11
basic colour categories (beyond the basic colours, people will admit to X
being "a sort of Y" where Y is one of the basics), but that many langauges
only have words for fewer than 11.  The study grouped the basic colours as
follows:

0: white, black
1: red
2: green, yellow
3: blue
4: brown
5: purple, pink, orange, grey

The claim was that if a language contained a word for a term at position X in
the list, then it would always contain all the terms at positions Y where
Y<X.  So a language could have terms for white, black and red, but it could
not have a term for blue without also having words for green and yellow.

The study has been disputed, but it's quite an interesting idea.  And yes,
there are apparently some languages which only have colour words for black
and white.

English did not have the adjective "orange" until the late 16th century,
hence why we still say that people have red hair.

-- 
Matthew Phillips
Durham
0
Matthew
11/11/2016 8:15:16 PM
Matthew Phillips wrote:
> English did not have the adjective "orange" until the late 16th century,
> hence why we still say that people have red hair.

So, *that's* why when somebody says "x has red hair" I look at them and
think "no they don't, are you blind???" Like when people say Prince
Harry's girlfriend is black. No she's not, just look at her! It's as
though there's some universal fundamental congnative flaw in people's
vision systems.

"red" hair means this: http://slodive.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/red-hair-color-11.jpg

Like a lot of things I come across where my first thought is: but! surely
you learned X at school before you were Y years old? I can't believe I
am the only person where X was a standard part of learning-how-to-be-alive.

jgh
0
jgh
11/13/2016 3:34:45 AM
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