f



Python

I am shuffling my way through 'Python in easy steps'
I have reached the section on 'Classes' and cannot make the tutorials 
work.
I have tried several variations on the attached code without success.
The first program Bird.py which sets up the class does not give any 
errors but running instance.py always errors.
'Bird has no attribute _doc_' is an example of the first error.

Can anyone through any light/knowledge my way since I am getting 
frustrated.
Code below.

Malcolm Smith

#!/C:\python3
#Bird.py

# Declare a new class with descriptive string
class Bird:
    """A base class to define bird properties."""

#Declare and initialise a class variable with integer value zero
    count=0

#Define initialiser class method to initialise instance variable & 
increment class variable
def _init_(self, chat):
    self.sound = chat
    Bird.count+= 1

# Add class method to return value of instance variable when called
#and save to file
def talk(self):

    return self.sound
===================================================================
#!/C:\python3
#instance.py

#Make features of class file available then display its document 
#string
from Bird import*
print('\nClass Instances Of:\n',Bird._doc_)

# statement to create an instance of the class & pass string value to 
#its instance variable
polly = Bird('Squawk,squawk!')

#Display this instance variable value & call class method to display 
#common class variable value
print('\nNumber Of Birds:',polly.count)
print('Polly Says:',polly.talk())

#Create second instance of class passing different string to instance 
#variable
harry=Bird('Tweet, tweet!')

#Display instance variable value and call class method to display 
#common class variable value
print('\nNumber Of Birds:',harry.count)
print('Harry Says:', harry.talk())




-- 
T M Smith
Using an Iyonix and RISC OS 5.20 in the North Riding of Yorkshire
0
T
1/10/2015 10:59:27 PM
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T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:

>I am shuffling my way through 'Python in easy steps'
>I have reached the section on 'Classes' and cannot make the tutorials 
>work.
>I have tried several variations on the attached code without success.
>The first program Bird.py which sets up the class does not give any 
>errors but running instance.py always errors.
>'Bird has no attribute _doc_' is an example of the first error.
>
>Can anyone through any light/knowledge my way since I am getting 
>frustrated.

I recall that you were a little frustrating yourself the last time you
were here.  You were advised multiple times by multiple people to make
sure that you got the indentation correct, and a loooong time later you
admitted that you didn't know what that meant. (I mean would it have
killed you to Google it?)

*Sigh* anyway, glancing through that code, a few things stand out for me:

Linux on the raspberry Pi needs the unix-type "shebang" as the 1st line:
#!/usr/bin/env python3

Are you using Windows?  That Windows-like file path that you had in the
shebang is a little odd since Windows doesn't use shebangs, but that
brings me to the next point.  Linux unlike Windows is case sensitive, so
the file would have to be Bird.py not bird.py, although if you are using
Windows, it might work anyway.  But change it to be on the safe side.

Magic methods require double underscores on both the leading and trailing
sides, which might not be obvious if the book uses a font that merges them
together:
__doc__ and __init__

And last but not least, the old indentation issue again. Everything from
"def __init__" onwards needs an extra level of indentation.


0
Dave
1/11/2015 8:27:23 AM
Sorry, ignore my comment regarding Bird.py since I see that you are using
Bird.py consistently throughout.  I'd jumped to the conclusion that it was
a case sensitivity issue because linux usually uses lower case file names,
and the error suggested that it simply couldn't find the file.  In fact
the error was almost certainly due to using single instead of double
underscores in the magic methods.
0
Dave
1/11/2015 9:02:49 AM
In message <sib4bap486sjf8kcvio497mbeqne9rgj67@4ax.com>
          Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> 
wrote:

> T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:

>>I am shuffling my way through 'Python in easy steps'
>>I have reached the section on 'Classes' and cannot make the tutorials
>>work.
>>I have tried several variations on the attached code without success.
>>The first program Bird.py which sets up the class does not give any
>>errors but running instance.py always errors.
>>'Bird has no attribute _doc_' is an example of the first error.
>>
>>Can anyone through any light/knowledge my way since I am getting
>>frustrated.

> I recall that you were a little frustrating yourself the last time you
> were here.  You were advised multiple times by multiple people to make
> sure that you got the indentation correct, and a loooong time later you
> admitted that you didn't know what that meant. (I mean would it have
> killed you to Google it?)

> *Sigh* anyway, glancing through that code, a few things stand out for me:

> Linux on the raspberry Pi needs the unix-type "shebang" as the 1st line:
> #!/usr/bin/env python3

> Are you using Windows?
Yes I am using W7 then transferring the script to the Raspberry Pi


>  That Windows-like file path that you had in the
> shebang is a little odd since Windows doesn't use shebangs, but that
> brings me to the next point.  Linux unlike Windows is case sensitive, so
> the file would have to be Bird.py not bird.py, although if you are using
> Windows, it might work anyway.  But change it to be on the safe side.

I am copying word for word from the book but not sure where the 
'shebang' originated but have not effected previous scripts.

> Magic methods require double underscores on both the leading and trailing
> sides, which might not be obvious if the book uses a font that merges them
> together:
> __doc__ and __init__

Very useful information that has solved the problem with the __doc__ 
statement. Despite all my googling and reading I have not found it 
stated anywhere that it was a double underscore. Everywhere it was 
shown as a single line.

> And last but not least, the old indentation issue again. Everything from
> "def __init__" onwards needs an extra level of indentation.

If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error 
'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.
If I run 'instance.py' as written in the book I get the error 
'object() takes no parameters' and the polly=bird .... line is 
highlighted.

Thank you for your patience. I assure you I have google until I am 
lost in a sea of words

Malcolm










-- 
T M Smith
Using an Iyonix and RISC OS 5.20 in the North Riding of Yorkshire
0
T
1/11/2015 10:47:24 PM
On Sun, 11 Jan 2015 22:47:24 GMT, T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com>
declaimed the following:

>If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error 
>'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.

	Then either the book is garbage, or the method used to read the book is
faulty in how it renders indentation.

	Python is highly dependent upon indentation -- where other language use

begin
	stuff
end

(or {, }), Python uses the indentation level. Style guides for the other
languages suggest visually delimiting blocks by indentation anyway; Python
just does away with the begin/end ({/}) markers.

	If you know pretty much any block structured language, reading the
Python Language Reference and the Python Library Reference sections for
data types should be enough to be able to produce functioning programs...
they may not be elegant, but they will work.

-- 
	Wulfraed                 Dennis Lee Bieber         AF6VN
    wlfraed@ix.netcom.com    HTTP://wlfraed.home.netcom.com/
0
Dennis
1/12/2015 4:25:53 AM
T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:

>If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error 
>'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.
>If I run 'instance.py' as written in the book I get the error 
>'object() takes no parameters' and the polly=bird .... line is 
>highlighted.

instance.py has no structures requiring indentation, but Bird.py does.
0
Dave
1/12/2015 9:59:31 AM
Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> wrote:

>T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:
>
>>If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error 
>>'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.
>>If I run 'instance.py' as written in the book I get the error 
>>'object() takes no parameters' and the polly=bird .... line is 
>>highlighted.
>
>instance.py has no structures requiring indentation, but Bird.py does.

And since the indentation is so critical, if you get stuck again and need
to ask the reason for an error, then as you did at the start of this
thread, you'll have to paste in both files, exactly as they were when they
generated the error.
0
Dave
1/12/2015 10:08:28 AM
On Mon, 12 Jan 2015 10:08:28 +0000
Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> wrote:

> Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> wrote:
> 
> >T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:
> >
> >>If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error 
> >>'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.
> >>If I run 'instance.py' as written in the book I get the error 
> >>'object() takes no parameters' and the polly=bird .... line is 
> >>highlighted.
> >
> >instance.py has no structures requiring indentation, but Bird.py does.
> 
> And since the indentation is so critical, if you get stuck again and need
> to ask the reason for an error, then as you did at the start of this
> thread, you'll have to paste in both files, exactly as they were when they
> generated the error.

In case it hasn't already been mentioned, you can get odd results if you have
a mixture of tab and space indents.

I have my text editor set so that the tab key sends spaces, not tab characters.

-- 
W J G
0
Folderol
1/12/2015 10:30:18 AM
In message <20150112103018.18fdfb9f@debian>
          Folderol <general@musically.me.uk> wrote:

> On Mon, 12 Jan 2015 10:08:28 +0000
> Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> wrote:

>> Dave Farrance <DaveFarrance@OMiTTHiSyahooANDTHiS.co.uk> wrote:
>> 
>>>T M Smith <tmsmith36@tmsmith36.plus.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>>If I indent any line in the script 'intance.py' I get the error
>>>>'unexpected indent' non are shown as indented in the book.
>>>>If I run 'instance.py' as written in the book I get the error
>>>>'object() takes no parameters' and the polly=bird .... line is
>>>>highlighted.
>>>
>>>instance.py has no structures requiring indentation, but Bird.py does.
>> 
>> And since the indentation is so critical, if you get stuck again and need
>> to ask the reason for an error, then as you did at the start of this
>> thread, you'll have to paste in both files, exactly as they were when they
>> generated the error.

> In case it hasn't already been mentioned, you can get odd results if you have
> a mixture of tab and space indents.

> I have my text editor set so that the tab key sends spaces, not tab
> characters.
Thanks for your reply Folderol.
Yes you picked out my inexcusable sin.
A mixture of tabs and spaces.

Thanks for everyones input, I can now progress, a wiser person hope

Malcolm


-- 
T M Smith
Using an Iyonix and RISC OS 5.20 in the North Riding of Yorkshire
0
T
1/12/2015 10:30:49 PM
On Sat, 10 Jan 2015 22:59:27 +0000, T M Smith wrote:

I'm not a Python programmer so much of this passes me by, however, 
comments inline:

<snip>

> #!/C:\python3 #Bird.py

** If this is a declaration to force the use of a specific version/
location of python then it isn't portable between Windows and Linux. 
Familiar to me from Unix where #!/bin/sh says which shell to use for the 
following script ** 

> # Declare a new class with descriptive string class Bird:
>     """A base class to define bird properties."""
> 
> #Declare and initialise a class variable with integer value zero
>     count=0
> 
> #Define initialiser class method to initialise instance variable &
> increment class variable def _init_(self, chat):
>     self.sound = chat Bird.count+= 1
> 
> # Add class method to return value of instance variable when called #and
> save to file def talk(self):
> 
>     return self.sound
> ===================================================================
> #!/C:\python3 #instance.py
** as above **
> #Make features of class file available then display its document #string
> from Bird import*

** Two comments wrapped together? **

> print('\nClass Instances Of:\n',Bird._doc_)
> 
> # statement to create an instance of the class & pass string value to
> #its instance variable polly = Bird('Squawk,squawk!')
> 
> #Display this instance variable value & call class method to display
> #common class variable value print('\nNumber Of Birds:',polly.count)
>print('Polly Says:',polly.talk())

** Noting that Pan has wrapped the code into the comment on reply, I'm 
wondering about your line terminations - probably just Pan, though **

> 
> #Create second instance of class passing different string to instance
> #variable harry=Bird('Tweet, tweet!')

** I don't understand why the declaration of the variable is commented out 
- this seems to make the print statement below useless **

> #Display instance variable value and call class method to display
> #common class variable value print('\nNumber Of Birds:',harry.count)
> print('Harry Says:', harry.talk())





-- 
Windows 8.1 on PCSpecialist box
0
David
1/18/2015 11:08:01 AM
Thanks for the reply Dave.
The code has lost something in translation.
Your comment on the declaration may be valid but it does not seem to 
upset the running any of the files when transfered to the pi.
So presumably it is ignored.

It turned out that the only problem with the code was I had used tabs 
instead of spaces in the first script, Bird.py.

Malcolm

In message <ci1ighFbvudU2@mid.individual.net>
          David <wibble@btintenet.com> wrote:

> On Sat, 10 Jan 2015 22:59:27 +0000, T M Smith wrote:

> I'm not a Python programmer so much of this passes me by, however,
> comments inline:

> <snip>

>> #!/C:\python3 #Bird.py

> ** If this is a declaration to force the use of a specific version/
> location of python then it isn't portable between Windows and Linux.
> Familiar to me from Unix where #!/bin/sh says which shell to use for the
> following script **

>> # Declare a new class with descriptive string class Bird:
>>     """A base class to define bird properties."""
>> 
>> #Declare and initialise a class variable with integer value zero
>>     count=0
>> 
>> #Define initialiser class method to initialise instance variable &
>> increment class variable def _init_(self, chat):
>>     self.sound = chat Bird.count+= 1
>> 
>> # Add class method to return value of instance variable when called #and
>> save to file def talk(self):
>> 
>>     return self.sound
>> ===================================================================
>> #!/C:\python3 #instance.py
> ** as above **
>> #Make features of class file available then display its document #string
>> from Bird import*

> ** Two comments wrapped together? **

>> print('\nClass Instances Of:\n',Bird._doc_)
>> 
>> # statement to create an instance of the class & pass string value to
>> #its instance variable polly = Bird('Squawk,squawk!')
>> 
>> #Display this instance variable value & call class method to display
>> #common class variable value print('\nNumber Of Birds:',polly.count)
>>print('Polly Says:',polly.talk())

> ** Noting that Pan has wrapped the code into the comment on reply, I'm
> wondering about your line terminations - probably just Pan, though **

>> 
>> #Create second instance of class passing different string to instance
>> #variable harry=Bird('Tweet, tweet!')

> ** I don't understand why the declaration of the variable is commented out
> - this seems to make the print statement below useless **

>> #Display instance variable value and call class method to display
>> #common class variable value print('\nNumber Of Birds:',harry.count)
>> print('Harry Says:', harry.talk())







-- 
T M Smith
Using an Iyonix and RISC OS 5.20 in the North Riding of Yorkshire
0
T
1/18/2015 8:25:19 PM
Reply:

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